Grammarly Sandpit

I am text block. Click edit button to change this text. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo.

Bar cancel

Mackay (2003) p.11

Description applied to bar cancels but also denoting stamps which have been overprinted with bars to block out the effigy of an overthrown ruler. Overprint of parallel bars was also applied to certain American and Canadian stamps intended for use as pre-cancels.
Mackay (2003) p.11
Bulk Posting
A system allowing a cheaper postage rate for a large number of articles provided they are of uniform size and weight and agreed minimum postings are made on each occasion.
Mackay (2003) p.18
Block of stamps
Any multiple of unsevered stamps, other than a complete pane or sheet, which contains at least two parallel rows of stamps in any direction.
Mackay (2003) p.19
A mark of the defacement of any kind applied to a stamp or item of postal stationery to prevent it from being used again. It may take the form of manuscript marking, machine or hand struck obliteration, piercing or punching with holes, or even the removal of a portion of the stamp.
Mackay (2003) p.20
Security endorsement, either overprinted or handwritten, to prevent stamps being used to postally. It is known as a form of specimen overprint on British and colonial stamps and also overprinted in English or its equivalent in other languages to denote remainders.
Mackay (2003) p.19
Canceled to order
Stamps which have been canceled without actually performing Postal Service. Such stamps may have been remaindered, or they may have been removed from stock for sale to collectors at reduced rates. The term postmarked to order is sometimes used to distinguish stamps specially canceled by favour at the post office counter, but which have been sold at full face value.
Mackay (2003) p.19
Any mark, in manuscript, applied by handstamp, or by machine, connected with the postal service and found on matter transmitted by post. Postmarks therefore include cancellations of all kinds which are designed to cancel or obliterate postage stamps in order to prevent their reuse. Postmarks, in general, may have the function of identifying the office of collection or delivery, the date on which the item was handled, or some instruction regarding special handling. Postmarks noting the prepayment of postage in cash may be regarded as a form of postage stamp either handstruck or applied by machine Mackay (2003) p.113
See also: Advertisement postmarks, backstamp, bar cancel, blackout cancel, cancellation, circular datestamp, climax dater, coloured postmarks, commatology, commemorative postmarks, cork cancels, date\stamps, double stamp, dumb cancellation, duplex, flag cancel, flames illustrées, hammer, handstruck postage stamps, late fee postmarks, lifebelt, machine cancellation, manuscript cancellation, multilingual postmarks, obliteration, paid postmark, parcel postmark, pen canceled, pictorial postmarks, postage paid impressions, private postmarks, publicity slogan, relief cancel, skeleton handstamp, rotary cancellation, slogan postmark, spoon cancellation, square circle, and temporary rubber datestamp
Mackay (2003) p.65 XX
Printing … error
A stamp which, inadvertently, has something wrong about its design, or some technical feature, but which has been issued by a postal authority. Not to be confused with flaws of varieties which occur during printing due to faulty workmanship.
Mackay (2003) p.50
Printing … flaw
A fortuitous blemish upon the design of a stamp or its perforation, which has arisen in the course of manufacture. Such floors may be caused by ink crusts or foreign matter on the printing plate or cylinder, or by a fold or crease in the paper, and are therefore frequently transient. When the floor is constant, that is, repeated throughout the part or hold of an issue, it may be turned up variety.
Mackay (2003) p.58
Printing … variety
A standard differing in some visible detail of its manufacture from the normal issue, caused by a fault in the printing process. Areas of colour, design, perforation, and watermark are also sometimes loosely termed varieties. The term is properly used to denote machine faults on specific stamps, which range from the comparatively insignificant or minor flaw having little more than curiosity value or transient interest, to the most striking and/or rare fault, such as a missing colour which can dramatically alter the appearance of a stamp.
Mackay (2003) p.164
Pictorial postmarks
Mackay (2003) p.19
An envelope, postcard or wrapper, with stamps affixed or printed on it to prepay the postage, and in complete condition.
Mackay (2003) p.49
Entire letter
A complete folder letter sheet, with the communication on the inside and address on the outside, together with relevant postal markings and adhesive stamps.
Mackay (2003) p.49
Postmarks applied to the back of envelopes, wrappers and other postal packets. From 1840 the datestamp of the office of posting was applied as a backstam, while the Maltese cross and later the numbered obliterator were used to cancel the stamp The date stamps of transit offices and the office of delivery were also applied as backstamps. The practice of backstamping has declined in recent years.
Mackay (2003) p.10
Form of wrapper or cover for letters, with the four corners of the sheet folded across the back. Sheets for envelopes were sold unfolded until the early 1840s when De La Rue invented a folding machine. Commonly used across Europe, they were classed as a second sheet and attracted a doubled postage in Britain until the advent of Uniform Postage in 1940. After this, envelopes became more popular than letter sheets.
Mackay (2003) p.49
Cover … first day
Commonly abreviated as FDC, these are a cover bearing postage stamps postmarked and sent tbrogh the post on the first day they were officially authorised for use. Special postmarks have been used for this purpose in many countries since the late 1930s and specially printed envelopes have developed since that time although isolated examples from the early 1900s have been recorded.
Mackay (2003) p.56

Cover … last day
Souvenir posted on the last day of service (by air, sea or rail) or before the closure of a post office, or on the termination of an issue of stamps.
Mackay (2003) p.77
Postmarks … killer
Nickname of an obliteration that effecticely ‘kills’ a stamp and prevents reuse. Most kellers belong to the 19th century, when postal administrations were particularly obsessed by the fear of reused stamps, and take the form of heavy bars (UK), grids (France), or the distinctive cork cancells of Canada and the USA.
Mackay (2003) p.76
Official mail
Correspondance of government departments, members of parliament, officers of state and royal household, subject to special handling and often exempt from postal charges.
Mackay (2003) p.94
Packet letter
An item of mail brought ashore form a packet, that is a ship either maintained by the government or carrying mail under Post Office cantract, as distinct from a ship letter Packet Letter postmarks were used as many British ports im the 19th century and early 20th century.
Mackay (2003) p.97
Ship letter
A letter conveyed by private vessel, as distinct from a packet letter. Many British seaports marked such letters carried in this way by distinctive postmarks. Special postage rates were also applied to ship letters to further distinguish them from packet letters and in;and mail. The use of the ship letter marks diead out after the Universal Posta Union adopted the paquebot classification in 1894.
Mackay (2003) p.104
French word derived from ‘Packet Boat’ and adopted by the Universal Postal Union in 1894 to denote mail posted on board ship abd subsequently taken ashore for onward transmission. Paquebot postmarks are used at many ports to cancel mail which may often bear postage stamps of other countries
Mackay (2003) p.98
Pictorial envelope
Mackay (2003) p.19
Bi-lingual pair
Two unseparated stamps on which the inscriptions are in different languages. Bilingual pairs were issued by South Africa from 1926 to 1951, stamps being incribed alternatly in English and Afrikaans. Other countries to have issued bilingual pairs include Belgium ((French & FLemish) and Sri Lanka (Tamil & Sinhala).
Mackay (2003) p.12
Bi-lingual stamp
Stamps with inscriptions in two languages, e.g. French & English (Canada), English & Sfrikaans (South Africa), French & Flemihs (Belgium) or English & Welsh (UK) and many countries using non-European script, with the equivalent English of French.
Mackay (2003) p.12
Plate numbers
Mackay (2003) p.19
Postal markings
Mackay (2003) p.19
Postage paid envelope
Mackay (2003) p.19
Postage paid impressions
Mackay (2003) p.139
Pre-stamped envelopes
Mackay (2003) p.19
Revenue stamps
Also known as fiscal stamps, there are intended for the collection of taxes, fees, and duties for the revenue of the state, as opposed to those inteneded primarily for postal or telegraphic purposes. Such stamps which are subsequently premitted for postal use are said to be Postal Fiscals. Conversely, unified stamps (i.e. those inscribed for postage and revenue) used for non-postal purposes would be regared as fiscals.
Mackay (2003) p.57
A design, device or pattern on paper generally visible by transmitting light, formed by the dandy roll at the wet pulp stage of manufacture, in which the pressure of the attached bits results in a thinning of the paper. The watermaark may serve to identify the paper-maker, but is usually incorporated in the paper used for stamps as a security measure, to defeat the forger. With more sophisticated printing methods in recent years, the use of watermarks is dying out.
Mackay (2003) p.19
Australia Post replica stamp cards
Replica cards are reproductions of intaglio (incised or engraved) or recess printed Australian (or Australian Antarctic Territory) stamps using original stamp dies. The stamp images on the replica cards are the equivalent of proofs from the original dies. The stamp replica cards are philatelic souvenirs only and have no postal validity. Some cards were produced in limited numbers in black and provided to volunteers at Australian stamp shows, or as part of packs for supporters.